Prasar Bharati

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Sunday, February 7, 2016

Technology Updates--Measuring sound pressure level of loudspeakers

Simple, cheap and revealing ways to measure loudspeaker SPLs in an edit suite and using smartphones
At the bottom of this article are several downloadable audio files that can be imported into any playback device, such as an NLE (Non-Linear Editing system). These files include a source of pink noise at -23 LUFS (Loudness Units relative to Full Scale). This stereo test file can then be played through the edit suite audio system, and with the use of an SPL meter, the monitoring level can be set at a reference level.
The frequency spectrum of pink noise -23LUFS

The spectrum of pink noise, available as a download test file below.
The graph above shows the spectrum of pink noise after it has passed through the transmission chain used for broadcast to the home. The pink noise source is chosen because of its spectral similarity to real audio. Compare the pink noise graph to the two graphs below showing the frequency spectrum of two excerpts from BBC One audio. One is mid-programme, the other is the end credits with voice-over followed by a trail. See the similarity? All three audio pieces were normalised to -23LUFS before the graphs were generated. These spectral graphs were generated from the audio files, not from the acoustic output of an audio monitor. Pink noise can therefore be seen to be a valid, useful test signal. It is an excellent neutral signal.

Spectrum of dialogue and backing within programme -23LUFS

Frequency spectrum mid programme (excerpt: 1m 30 sec long).    
                                             Spectrum of End credits, trail and VO
Frequency spectrum end of programme title music with voice-over followed by trail (excerpt: 1m 30secs long). 
To line up the SPL at the operational listening position, the speakers must themselves be in the correct position. Sadly, this is often not the case. The monitors should be moved so that nothing obstructs the entire face of each monitor between it and the listening position. They should also be at least one metre away from the nearest wall and at least one metre away from the ceiling. These requirements are necessary if reflections are to be avoided from these plain surfaces. Monitors should not be behind monitors! Would you put the audio monitor (loudspeakers) in front of the picture monitor? Putting the audio monitor behind the video monitor obstructs the sound, causing an audible drop in SPL (attenuation). Unfortunately, this attenuation is not equal across the entire audio spectrum, affecting the higher frequencies more than the lower frequencies. Sitting equidistant between the monitors allows you to hear an accurate stereo image and allows you to hear centrally placed voices or background 'atmos' at accurate levels. Your listening position and the monitors should form an equilateral triangle. 
                                                 Ideal stereo listening position
The correct listening position is at the apex of an equilateral triangle.
You now need an SPL meter. Until recently these devices were not widespread and only the local maintenance department would have possibly had access to one. However, if you are trying to set the SPL up yourself in your own edit suite, or if as a maintenance engineer you cannot easily get hold of an SPL meter, then use a smartphone. For Android and iOS there are lots of free “sound meter” applications. These applications can be surprisingly good, but depending on the phone they may themselves need calibrating. With the known hardware associated with iPhones this should not be an issue, but with the variable hardware used for the Android platform, calibration adjustments on one model of phone may not be transferrable to another. First, alter the internal mixer master faders of the NLE to maximum output and the channel/track to the nominal '0' point (usually allowing 10dB of headroom for the remainder of the fader's travel). Place the SPL meter in the position where the listener/operator would normally sit.
The SPL meter should be in 'average' or 'slow' mode. This mode, as it suggests does not change the reading quickly, as it is averaging over time the signal it receives through its microphone. There will also be a filter function labelled 'a weighting'. This is an internationally agreed filter response that is placed between the microphone and the measurement circuitry. These are there to mimic the frequency response of the human hearing system's perception of sound (see Fletcher and Munson curves from earlier) and the perception/annoyance of noise, as distinct from wanted sound. Play the pink noise .wav file (on loop play may be easier) and alter the level/gain/volume control on the power amplifiers feeding the monitors. Make sure the SPL meter/phone is not moved during the measurement as speakers are directional and tend to “beam” the higher frequencies, causing the SPL reading to vary with angular position. Almost all modern audio monitors have two or more speakers (drivers) within the cabinet - one for the lower and midrange frequencies, one for the higher frequencies. The point at which the two drivers take over from each other is called the crossover frequency. The choice of frequency is a design decision based on driver size and driver accuracy at the upper and lower frequency ranges of each driver. At this crossover frequency beaming effects from the monitor can be detected as well as amplification or reduction of output SPL. In addition, the fact there are two drivers in the same box means the operator is not listening to a single sound source, but the amalgamation of two radiators separated by some distance (albeit small).
The distance between the centres of each driver causes amplification or reduction at a frequency governed by the distance between the centres of the drivers. Well-designed monitors may compensate for this in the design of the crossover filter. The diagram below shows how the SPL output of a monitor varies with angular position when playing the pink noise .wav file.
                                The change in SPL compared to angular position
SPL drops when the listening position is off the central axis. Test performed with pink noise .wav file in Wood Norton edit suite. Slightly different response on the right may be due reflections of sound from the video monitor which was to the right of the audio monitor.

The meter microphone should point directly forward, as if the listener was staring at a point precisely midway between the monitors. Below is a photograph that shows the similarity of the reading of the calibrated SPL meter and the Android phone application. The phone applications 'custom calibration value' was chosen by trial and error to match that of the calibrated SPL meter. The BS5969 Type 2 markings on the meter indicates the standard to which the meter conforms and the Type 2 indicates that it is suitable for 'general field work'. It is not a laboratory standard device but it perfectly good enough for these purposes.

Note BS5969 has been superseded by EN 60651:1994 / BS EN 60651:1994 / IEC 651:1979 / IEC 61672:2002-1
The calibrated SPL meter and the Android phone both showing 69dBA at the listening position of a BBC Wood Norton edit suite during line up.
SPL meter compared to phone app after calibration
For more details click on the following link.
BBC Academy - Technology - Measuring sound pressure level of loudspeakers
Credit and sourse :- BBC Academy - Technology - Measuring sound pressure level of loudspeakers
Contributed by :- Shri. Swamy DN

AIR रायपुर का ARU टीम फील्ड सर्वे

AIR रायपुर का ARU टीम फील्ड सर्वे कर श्रोताओं से फीडबैक लेते हुए.... 

आकाशवाणी महानिदेशालय की ओर से दिशा-निर्देश मिलने के बाद आकाशवाणी रायपुर का श्रोता अनुसंधान एकांश की टीम फील्ड सर्वे के तहत स्वयं रेडियो श्रोताओं से मिलने उनके घर पहंच कर आवश्यक फीडबैक ले रहे हैं |यह पहला अवसर है, जब आकाशवाणी का श्रोता अनुसंधान एकांश के अधिकारी स्वयं फीडबैक लेने रेडियो श्रोताओं के घर-घर पहुंच रहे हैं | इसके पूर्व श्रोता अनुसंधान एकांश के अधिकारी फील्ड सर्वे हेतु स्नातक पास युवाओं का चयन कर व ट्रेनिंग देकर सर्वे के लिए भेजते रहे हैं |अंचल के रेडियो श्रोता पहली बार एकांश के अधिकारी को अपने बीच पाकर काफी खुशी का इजहार कर रहे हैं | निश्चित ही इस सर्वें से श्रोता एक उत्साह का माहौल कायम हुआ है |
फोटो परिचय :
बाएं से दाएं
* आकाशवाणी रायपुर में वरिष्ठ अन्वेषक श्री सैबा माझी
* रेडियो श्रोता श्री लव सेन व डॉ प्रदीप जैन (सिमगा)
* आकाशवाणी रायपुर में उपनिदेशक (श्रोत अनुसंधान) श्रीमती एम. प्रधान
* श्री सुरेश साहू, लिपिक, आकाशवाणी रायपुर

Contributed on Whats App By:Jhavendra Kumar Dhruw,09826168122
You can also send information on Whats App on 9422221468 to Shri Nitin Chavare for uploading on the blog.

Why It Is Much Better To Watch Doordarshan Than The Predictable ‘Saas-Bahu’ Soaps On TV

Year-ender television programming has a set format of look-backs on the year gone by, TV programmes gone by, the best and the worst. Sometimes these look-backs extend into the first quarter of the new year as well. In fact, doing year-end wraps in the new year is now the new normal. For someone addicted to news, soaps are not exactly my forte but the need to fit in during holidays and family get-togethers (yes, I have such relatives too, who do watch soaps!) also means brushing up on TV soaps and plot-lines.So, when I was researching with this very desperate and superficial agenda, I came across some very interesting articles on the serials in the general entertainment categories that seem to have caught the media critics’ fancy. One was a Times of India piece by Mani Mahesh Arora very grandly head-lined, 5 TV serials that broke stereotypes and educated India. It is important to mention here that it was not a year-ender wrap but a mid-year stock-take. It listed Gangaa, Uttran, Balika Vadhu, Udaan and Service Wali Bahu. I do think the piece was over-celebrating, but hey, when Ekta Kapoor has brought benchmarks to the basement level, these serials did stand out!

Then there was a long research on The Alternative by Nalanda Tambe and Nidhi Shendurnikar Tere on the missing working women on Indian TV soaps. They lamented the over-presence of kitchen politics and domestication of women. Again, a mid-year review article. While the first was a celebration, the second was a rant, but both listed soaps of private TV channels only.That’s when I completely abandoned the original agenda of my search for soaps to binge-watch on YouTube to blend in with vacuous family get-togethers and started wondering what happened to the Doordarshan (DD) soaps. Where are the review articles on DD soaps? Or has DD completely abandoned soaps as a programming genre? This question became even more pertinent given that the BARC (Broadcast Audience Research Council) ratings have started including small town viewers and rural viewers also. DD has been the undisputed topper there. In fact, so surprising was its lead that once the audience counts were rationalised, none less than All India Bakchod gave a shout out to them on their second episode of On Air with AIB.

Voila, persistence pays and I finally found a DD serials’ review article on the world wide web! And it was on the India Today platform no less! Well, not exactly a review, it was more of a nostalgia piece by Shruti Kapoor on 15 Doordarshan serials that we would love to watch again. It excludes Tamas but includes Dekh Bhai Dekh! Well, credit where credit is due, the author does say that her bias might have been apparent in the list even though she tried to be neutral. Fair point! And this piece is dated August.

Seriously, where are the media commentaries, reviews of DD serials? The Media Foundation did a study in 2015, When The Dish Knocked Down The Antenna, where they examined the changing viewership patterns amongst the low-income populations in five states when digitisation started. Their study did not praise DD or public broadcasters (the opinion is divided whether the DD group of channels can be called public broadcasters in the strict sense of the term like the BBC since it is not exactly independent, it reports to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting). A very well circulated study but even this study has not triggered media articles on DD programming!The Media Foundation’s study does talk about the unmet information needs of DD viewers. That brings me to a serial which really seems to address this particular shortcoming of DD programming with really powerful content. Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon, into its second season, broadcast on DD every weekend, is power-packed with information but it is done through some very interesting and relatable storytelling.

It is the journey of Dr. Sneha Mathur, a Mumbai-based doctor who has personal and professional commitments and a strong conscience. The serial shows her navigating through work and life, family and society, ideals and reality and in the process encountering deep-rooted societal problems, from female foeticide, dowry, gender discrimination to compromised medical practitioners, villages caught in a time warp and patriarchy in all its forms. And since it has some engaging story-telling, everyday relatable characters and is full of fact-checked content, it is high on practical information too. It takes on the issue of planned families in the most aesthetic way! Highly recommended!

I also recommend it because it spares us the absurdities of most TV soaps from the Ekta Kapoor factory of TV soap making, such as:

1. Irrational, untimely, mostly pointless, generation leaps
2. Garish make-up and over-the-top costumes that make acting a weight-lifting exercise
3. Probability (rather certainty!) of the story line moving less than a single column inch in one whole episode
4. Pointless new characters to prolong the end of the serial
5. Ear shattering background scores at over 85 decibels
6. The not-so-fine art of loud acting

I could go on and on, but you get the drift! Suffice it to say, watching Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon would be a break from regressive, predictable ‘Saas-Bahu’ soaps that Indian TV is brimming with! That it has the very amiable Farhan Akhtar as the Sutradhaar/narrator, could be a bonus (or not!). The very talented Feroz Abbas Khan, of Tumhari Amrita fame, as its director and creator may help you gauge how far it would be from the run-of-the-mill ‘Saas Bahu’ sagas.As for the audience, Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon had 58 million viewers and 6,00,000 people engaged as direct audience as per the beta site Indian Television in the first season itself. Now those are numbers that should definitely get the Indian media critics writing more on the serial, and more on programming in Doordarshan generally. For that, we need to start watching DD programmes. Seems like the ‘aam janta’ is watching. It’s about time media commentators did too! And who knows, we might just come across pleasant surprises like Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon!

Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon is broadcast on Doordarshan every Saturday and Sunday at 7.30pm.

Contributed By: Jainender Nigam,PB NewsDesk ,

Saturday, February 6, 2016

Sri.Devaraju, Security Guard, DMC, Mysuru retired on 31.01.2016.

Sri.Devaraju, Security Guard, DMC, Mysuru retired on attaining 60 yrs of age on 31.01.2016. He was an ex-serviceman and joined the Department in Dec.1991. He has put in 24 yrs of Service.

Contributed by:- SE, DMC, MYSORE,

AIR Darbhanga celebrates 40th Foundation Day

AIR Darbhanga celebrated its 40th anniversary on 02 February. It was on this day in 1976 that AIR Darbhanga started its operations towards serving the people of North Bihar. On this occasion, a small cake cutting ceremony and "Kavi Sammelan" was also organised.The function was presided over by Randhir Thakur, Programme Executive.Programme Executive Amit Kumar, SEA NK Jha, SEA KN Thakur and Transmission Executives Pushpendra Sourabh, Uday Shanker, Bineet Kumar Thakur, Vivek Ranjan and Incharge Accountant Dr satyendra Jha also spoke on the occasion.

The ceremony was also attended by many former employees of AIR Darbhanga, its Casual Announcers and Comperes who shared their experiences and memories.

Contributed by:- Akashvani Darbhanga,

Radio Kashmir Jammu Felicitated renowned Poetess of Jammu under "Jharoka Series"

In the series of programme, Jharokha, being organized by Radio Kashmir Jammu J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages every month, Smt. Krishna Gupta, renowned Hindi poetess honoured for her achievements in the field of literature and language here at the K.L Saigal Hall, Jammu. Born on Nov.05,1919 in Jammu, she started writing in her early life and at present there are eight books at her credit & five books are ready for publication.Sh. K.R Gupta, Former Engineer-in-Chief, All India Radio, presided whereas Prof. Rita Jitendra, eminent artist, writer and social activist was the Chief Guest. Dr. Aziz Hajini, Secretary, Dr. Arvinder Singh Amn, Additional Secretary, JKAACL & Sh. S.K Malhotra, Prog. Head, Radio Kashmir Jammu, were also present in the presidium.

Delivering his presidential address, Sh. K.R Gupta, Former Engineer in Chief, Radio Kashmir, Jammu applauded the role of Academy & expressed his views that he was lucky enough to have witnessed most of the programmes under the series of JHROKHA. He further said that the personalities from the field of Art, Culture & Languages, who have been felicitated, deserve recognition owing to their contribution in the field of literature, Art, & Culture. He further said that this joint venture of Radio Kashmir, Jammu and Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages succeeded in giving due recognition to the legends in the field of culture and literature and is also widely appreciated.Prof. Rita Jitendra also expressed her views and said that this programme is gaining momentum day by day and hope that this programme will go a long way with the mission to give the proper recognition to the personalities who contributed their life serving literature and language. She complimented Mrs. Krishna Gupta and highlighted her contribution.Smt. Krishna Gupta also shared her experiences with august gathering and shared her creative process. She thanked Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages and Radio Kashmir, Jammu for honouring and recognizing her lifetime contribution in the field of literature.

Earlier, delivering his welcome address, Mr. K.K Lidhoo, PEX, Radio Kashmir Jammu, said that JHAROKHA programme was started with an aim to felicitate the prominent personalities who have earned a unique name by way of their hard and honest work in the field of Art, Literature and Culture.Dr. Nirmal Vinod, a prominent personality in the field of literature read out a detailed paper on the life and works of Smt. Krishna Gupta. The proceedings of the programme were conducted by Sh. Ravi Kant, Sr.Announcer, RKJ and Vote of thanks was presented by Dr. Arvinder Singh Amn, Additional Secretary, JKAACL.

Contributed by:- V K SAMBYAL, 'Rangeeley Thakur' ,Station Director

FM players seek FDI at par with GECs since only AIR news permitted

The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the radio sector should be increased and the government should consider a 15 per cent national ceiling for future auctions and allow news on private FM radio, private FM players have said.A Stakeholders’ Consultation on 22 January on the Phase III e-Auction showed that the players wanted a lock-in period of three years on composition of largest Indian shareholder.Information & Broadcasting Ministry Secretary Sunil Arora said that the aim of FM Phase III was to enhance radio density in the country and efforts should be made for supporting FM radio to grow into a viable business model. He wanted all stakeholders to give their suggestions and inputs in writing by 30 January if they so desire considering that some stakeholders have already submitted their suggestions in meeting.

FM operators felt that the reserve prices recommended by TRAI on 24 March 2015 were very high and unviable. However, Ministry officials said the TRAI recommendations were advisory in nature.Similarly, it was stated that the rentals by Prasar Bharati were very high.It was also argued that the FDI limit could be increased to 100 per cent to bring it at par with the general entertainment channels as no news other than that from All India Radio was permitted.This suggestion from Reliance Broadcasting found favour with many of the participants but some companies like ENIL and DB Corp wanted permission to make news bulletins on their own. The Association of Radio Operators in India (AROI) said news from PTI and ANI could be permitted.AROI said if subsequent auction takes place in batches without relaxing the 15 per cent national cap, then this cap should be applied on overall number of channels being put to auction in phase III and not batch wise. 

ENIL found it unreasonable that Phase II migrant licenses were made to undergo three years’ lock-in restriction under Phase III regime as well when they had already served five years’ lock-in under Phase II. But HT Media said the lock-in requirement was fundamental to FM Phase III policy.Representative of Digital Radio Broadcasting also suggested that connected companies of a Group be treated as a single entity for participation in online bidding / auction process.Suggestions for future rounds included more clock rounds per day; increase of Auction Activity Requirement (AAR); apart from auction report at the end of the day, and report of each round.ENIL referred to delay of security clearance of its directors and key operatives from Home Ministry.

Forwarded by:- Jainendra Nigam ,PB NewsDesk,

Friday, February 5, 2016

Obituary- Sh N K Parmar AE AIR Jabalpur Passed Away

Sh N. K. Parmar, AE AIR Jabalpur has left us yesterday. We are deeply saddened and shaked by the loss of a good friend and colleague. Heartful condolences to his family.

Prasar Bharati Parivar deeply condoles the untimely demise of Sh Parmar and prays for the peace of the departed soul.

Contributed by:- Vivek Singh Dy DE Mumbai

Live Inauguration Ceremony of BES EXPO 2016

Source & Credit:

For more information Click HERE.

Letter of Appreciation from DG(NEWS), NSD, AIR, New Delhi

Good work always fetches sweet result and if it is the outcome of a combined effort the taste is much sweetener. Such a team work displayed by AIR staff during the recently concluded inaugural function for origination of Regional News in Sambalpuri from the new project of Regional News Unit of AIR, Sambalpur which held on 23rd January, 2016. The Director General(News), News Services Division, one of the distinguished guests who witnessed the entire proceedings has been pleased to speak out from his heart as under.

Contributed by :- Shri. K.M.Bibhar, AIR, Sambalpur Mob 9178720506

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